Erythrocyte as novel cellular drug delivery system

  • Subhi SS Department of Pharmaceutics, Ezhuthachan College of pharmaceutical sciences, Marayamuttom-695124, Kerala, India.
  • S Thamrook Department of Pharmaceutics, Ezhuthachan College of pharmaceutical sciences, Marayamuttom-695124, Kerala, India.
Keywords: Erythrocyte, Resealed erythrocyte, Isolation techniques, Drug loading, Route of administration, Applications.


Nowadays so many carrier systems are used for delivery of drug or any other therapeutic agent to specific tissues or cells for achieving desired therapeutic efficacy. Using drug delivery systems can improve action of therapeutic agent and reduce their toxicity. As a novel approach the erythrocyte or red blood cells are used for drug delivery. The resealed erythrocyte is a cellular carrier have more advantage than other carrier system. Based on various studies found that erythrocyte have greater potential in delivery of biopharmaceuticals, therapeutically significant peptides and proteins, nucleic acid-based biological, antigens, anticancer drug and vaccines. The main problem obtain in case of existing carrier systems are biocompatibility of carrier and its degradation products. The biocompatibility, non-pathogenicity, non-immunogenicity and biodegradability make erythrocyte unique and useful carriers. They also possess longer circulation half-life and zero order drug release kinetics. Resealed erythrocyte carriers have certain impact among the activity of certain therapeutic agent like anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, chemotherapeutic agents by reducing their side effect upon incorporation with these carriers. The general preparation step of resealed erythrocyte involve separation of erythrocyte from blood the organism of interest and using different methods the erythrocyte broken and the therapeutic agent or drug entrapped into the erythrocyte. This review article highlights the characteristics, isolation techniques of erythrocyte, preparation method, evaluation, application of resealed erythrocyte as carrier in drug delivery systems.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Erythrocytes. The Cardiovascular System: Blood. Anatomy and Physiology II. OpenStax CNX.

Kuhn, V., & Diederich, L., (2017, May) Red Blood Cell Function and Dysfunction:Redox Regulation, Nitric Oxide Metabolism, Anemia. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. DOI:

Nikinmaa, M., (2011,January) Red Blood Cell Function. Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology: From Genome to Environment.

Jangde, R., (2011, October) An Overview of resealed erythrocyte for cancer therapy, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research.

Alpar, H. O., & Lewis, D. A., ( 1985 January) Therapeutic Efficacy of Asparaginase Encapsulated in Intact Erythrocytes, Biochemical Pharmacology. DOI:

Goel, V., Kaur, C., Devi, R., Kumar, A.,& Nautiyal, U., (2017, February) Resealed erythrocytes a specified tool in novel drug delivery system : A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Research.

Mishra, A., Kesharwani, R., & Tiwari, A. K., (2016, May), Resealed Erythrocytes: An Engineering Approach for Drug Delivery and Drug targeting. International Journal of Urgent Research in Chemistry Science.

Deepika, R. B., Ram, S. S., Ketan, K. D., & Halle, P. D., (2013,April)Resealed erythrocyte drug delivery: A review, International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry.

Zargar, S. M., Hafshejani, D. K., Eskandarinia, A., Rafienia, M., & Kharazi, A. Z., (2019, july). A Review of Controlled Drug Delivery Systems Based on Cells and Cell Membranes. Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors. 10.4103/jmss.JMSS_53_18.

Alli, P.R., Kulat, R. B.,& Bhagat, B. V., (2016, April) Resealed Erythrocytes: A Novel Drug Delivery System. Asian Journal of PharmaceuticalTechnology &Innovation.

Ravilla, S., Chandu, B. R., Nama, S., & Nagaveni, B., (2012, April) Erythrocytes as Carrier for Drugs, Enzymes and Peptides,Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 10.7324/JAPS.2012.2503. DOI:

Bourgeaux,V., Lanao, J. M., Bax, B. E., & Godfrin, Y., (2016, February). Drug-loaded erythrocytes: on the road toward marketing approval. Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 10.2147/DDDT.S96470. DOI:

Thulasiramaraju, T. V., Arunachalam, A., Surendrababu, G. V., Syamkumar, N., Nagendrababu, V. V., & Nikileshbabu, M., (2011, May) Resealed Erythrocytes: A Novel Drug delivery system, International Journal of Preclinical and Pharmaceutical Research.

Kumar, R., Chandra, A., Gautam, P. K., Shrivastava, A., (2013, July) Resealed Erythrocytes As A Novel Carrier For Drug Delivery: A Review. International Journal Of Pharmaceutical Sciences And Research. DOI:

Zimmermann,U., Riemann, F., & Pilwat, G.,(1976, june) Enzyme Loading of Electrically Homogenous Human Red Blood Cell Ghosts Prepared by Dielectric Breakdown. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes . DOI:

Schrier, S. L., Junga, I. G., & Ma. L., (1986, December) Studies on the effect of vanadate on endocytosis and shape changes in human red blood cells and ghost. Blood. DOI:

Nicolau, C., & Gersonde, K., (1979, November) Incorporation of Inositol Hexaphosphate into Intact Red Blood Cells, I: Fusion of Effector-Containing Lipid Vesicles with Erythrocytes. Naturwissenschaften. 10.1007/bf00368810. DOI:

Giri, S., & Bose, S., (2017,December) Resealed Erythrocyte: An Updated Engineering and Novel Approach for Targeted Drug Delivery, Journal of PharmaSciTech.

Deloach, J. R., & Ihler, G. M., (1977,January) A Dialysis Procedure for Loading of Erythrocytes with Enzymes and Lipids, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects. DOI:

Kolhe, S., & Sontakke, S., (2012, December) Resealed erythrocytes: an advanced review. International journal of pharmaceutical sciences and research. DOI:

Riaz, M.I.,Sarwar, H. S., & Rehman, M., (2019 , september) Study of erythrocytes as a novel drug carrier for the delivery of artemether. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. DOI:

Hamidi, M., &Tajerzadeh, H., (2013, January). Carrier Erythrocytes: An Overview. Drug Delivery. DOI:

Suresh, R., Bansal, B.K., & Singh, C. J., (2014, November). Resealed erythrocytes as carriers and its application in therapy. International Journal of Current Research In Chemistry And Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Gupta, A., Mishra, A. K., Bansal, P., Kumar. S., Gupta, V., Singh, R., &Kalyan, G. S., (2010, january) Cell Based Drug Delivery System through Resealed Erythrocyte - A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research.

Solanki, D., Sharma, P., Motiwale, M., & Kushwah, L., (2017, May). Resealed erythrocytes: a biocarriar for drug delivery. DOI:

Harshitha, V., Bhavana, D., Desu, P. K., &Vanitha, K., (2017, February) A Review on Resealed Erythrocyte as a Newer Drug Carrier System. Journal of Pharma and Drug Regulatory Affairs. 10.5281/zenodo.3548198.

Harisa, G. L., Ibrahim, M. F., Alanazi, F. K., & Alsarra, A. I., (2011, june) . Application and Safety of Erythrocytes as a Novel Drug Delivery System. Asian Journal of Biochemistry. DOI:

Dong, X., Niu, Y., Ding, Y., Wang, Y., Zhao, J., Leng, W., & Qin, L., (2017,march) Formulation and Drug Loading Features of Nano-Erythrocytes. Nanoscale Research Letters12. DOI:

Mahaparale, S., & Bhagat, A. P., (2019, july) Resealed RBC’s: Method, Evaluation, Route of Administration and Application. Asian Journal of pharmaceutical research. 10.5958/2231-5691.2019.00036. DOI:

Talwar, N., & Jain, N. K., (2008, October) .Erythrocytes as Carriers of Metronidazole: In-Vitro Characterization. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. DOI:

Magnani, M., Laguerre, M., Rossi, L., Bianchi, M., Ninfali, P., Mangani, F., & Ropars, C., (1990,July) . In vivo accelerated acetaldehyde metabolism using acetaldehyde dehydrogenase-loadederythrocytes.AlcoholandAlcoholism. DOI:

Han. X., Wang, C., & Liu, Z ., (2018, January) Red Blood Cells as Smart Delivery Systems. Bioconjugate Chem. DOI:

Biagiotti, S., Paoletti, M. F., Fraternale, A., Rossi, L.,& Magnani, M., (2011, july) Drug Delivery by Red Blood Cells. IUBMB Life. DOI:

How to Cite
Subhi SS, & S Thamrook. (2020). Erythrocyte as novel cellular drug delivery system. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, 1(4), 151-156.
Review Article